Chandrayaan-1 was the most awaited mission of India which came to reality on 22 October 2008 at 6.22 am with the help of PSLV-XL C11 Rocket. India was to have followed the league of exclusive Club with the launch of India’s  Moon Mission Chandrayaan-1. The other members of this elite club are the US, Russia, the European Space Agency, Japan and China. The launch was successful and on November 8, 2008, it also entered into lunar orbit successfully. But unfortunately, information came through ISRO that in less than nine months India's first lunar satellite Chandrayaan star sensor failed. And it stunned all the scientists.

The Indian Space Research Organization launched the spacecraft by a modified version of the PSLV from Satish Dhawan Space Centre located in the Sriharikota district in Andhra Pradesh. The mission could have proved a major boost to India's Space Programme over a two year period. The satellite was intended to survey the lunar surface. The survey would have produced a complete map of its chemical characteristics and 3-dimensional topography.


Chandrayaan-1, the lunar mission was called off on August 30, 2009, when it's orbiter lost radio contact with the mission control station. The control was supposed to have been a result of technical glitch because of the burst of sunspot activity.

The mission which would have put India in elite club shattered India's ambition of taking the first key strike towards landing an unmanned moon satellite with Rover in 2012 but its CHANDRAYAAN-2 mission sends in 2019. However, the moon impact probe was separated from the orbiting Chandrayaan-1 at the scheduled time and impacted the lunar south pole. How it made India the fourth nation to unfurl the flag on the Moon. It is revealed that the ISRO miscalculated temperature at 100 km above the Moon surface. The spacecraft, when put in the 100 km orbit, were exposed to excessive radiation from the Sun. 

In fact, only a few days after launch on November 8, 2008 problems in terms of thermal cycling, as well as radiation, began. The scientists were forced to deactivate some payload. In the second week of May 2009, Back-up sensors too failed. Finally on August 29 communications with the spacecraft snapped and ISRO Chairman acknowledged that heat-related problems were not anticipated



Despite the failure of the star sensors Chandrayaan-1 is said to have transmitted a large volume of data including 70.000 images of the Moon. If one goes by the statement of the ISRO Chief 95 percent of the objectives of the launching of the mission had been accomplished. According to ISRO scientists, water-related data received from NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper was supplemented by observations of the ISRO payloads. 

In the very near future, NASA will try to detect water on the Moon by deliberately crashing a large spacecraft on to the lunar space. However, all the instrument that smashes itself on to the Moon can only see the very uppermost layer of the soil. There is no lake or puddle of water on the lunar surface. 

If the scientists believe that there is water on the surface of the Moon, it is caused by the hydrogen ions from the Sun. The hydrogen ions are carried by the solar wind to the Moon. Its interaction with oxygen-rich minerals in lunar soil produces water. Still, water is a key resource for exploration. It is essential for life support and for rocket fuel. It will help in establishing a green habitat as a permanent settlement with a view to carrying on exploration.


Now the ISRO sends its Chandrayaan-2 consisting of the spacecraft and landing platform with the Moon rover. The platform with the Moon rover will ditch itself and land on the lunar surface. A motorized rover (Pragyan) will be released on the Moon surface from the lander (Vikram). The second mission is expected to be launched soon.  ISRO  for development of Chandrayaan-2 Lander and Rover for the new findings.

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